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Tuesday, February 28, 2017

The word “gorilla” dates back to ancient times when Hanno the Navigator first clapped eyes on a savage people on the West African Coast: a group of what he thought to be incredibly hairy human females. He called them Gorillae. Nowadays, scientists are uncertain as to whether the species he spotted were in fact gorilla or another kind of ape. Nonetheless, the word became a species name and literally means “tribe of hairy women”.

One of our closest living relatives

The term “African Ape” refers to gorillas, chimpanzees and bonobos, all of which diverged from a common hominidae ancestor. In fact, at least 95% of gorilla DNA is shared with humans, which makes them one of our closest living relatives. Much like humans, gorillas live in complex social communities or groups. They use tools to go about their daily business, such as sticks to forage for food or to test the depth of muddy water and swampy areas, and, in so doing, demonstrate a very human-like capacity for problem solving and dexterity.

Distinct arm wrestling advantage

As the largest of the great apes, a mature male Gorilla can reach six feet, weigh up to 230 kilograms, and have an arm length of eight feet. Their arms are longer than their legs to carry the weight of their enormous torsos and heads. Males develop a saddle-shaped patch of silvery grey on their backs when they reach sexual maturity hence the term “silverback”.

Tough at the top

A typical gorilla family includes a dominant silverback gorilla with multiple females, juvenile gorillas and infants. It is his job to keep the group together and provide protection, sometimes with the support of other silver backs or younger black back males. As leader, he makes the important decisions on behalf of the group, such as when to move and where to move. He mediates conflict, protects infant gorillas from infanticide and nobly defends the troop against predators.

Co-habitation and social grooming

Gorillas generally live in stable social groups and live within relatively small areas of land. In the wild they live to the grand age of 35. Sometimes groups co-exist peacefully in converging areas. When young male gorillas reach the age of 8 to 11 they usually move away and join another group, or start a new family of their own.

Gorillas, like humans, are social creatures. They engage in social grooming, which takes the form of rifling through one another’s hair with fingers or teeth. More than an exercise in hygiene or looking good, grooming is, in fact, an act of reinforcing social bonds.

Preference for vegetarian dining

While the majority of a gorilla’s menu consists of berries, leaves, shoots, stems fruit, and flowers, gorillas aren’t entirely herbivorous. Sometimes they chomp on small animal proteins such as grubs, caterpillars, snails, termites and ants. While they enjoy feasting on food, up to 18 kilograms a day, their pot bellies are not a side effect of too much food, but rather the result of enlarged intestines, which aid digestion.

Learning to speak Gorilla

Screaming, hooting, growling, roaring, howling, chuckling, chest pounding and other sounds and gestures can seem loud and intimidating if you’re not a gorilla. The screaming charge, with which most people are familiar, is in fact a big, hairy, yet vulnerable creature communicating anger and fear. It’s a tactic to scare away humans, their only predators. Gorillas are after all an endangered species - mainly from loss of habitat and hunting.

Brushing up on your belching

A contact call, also known as a belch vocalisation, because it was originally thought to be gorillas belching, is considered polite and respectful gorilla etiquette. Human observers are encouraged to use the belch vocalisation to indicate non-aggression. This together with a low stance, arms folded, eyes away, but glancing out of the corners shows that you’re non-threatening. It let’s gorillas know that you’re coming so that they aren’t surprised by your presence.

Debunking King Kong

Scientists have shown that the King Kong-esque movie portrayals of the largest of the apes as a ferocious beast are wholly untrue. In fact, the famous American zoologist, anthropologist and primatologist, Dian Fossey, who first undertook and documented extensive in-depth studies of mountain gorillas in their natural habitat, discovered that they are incredibly gentle and, surprisingly shy. She said, “It was their individuality combined with the shyness of their behaviour that remained the most captivating impression of this (her) first encounter with the greatest of the great apes”.

More human than humans

While many scientists resist “anthropomorphism” – projecting human emotions on to animals – other scientists have increasingly documented gorillas’ deeply touching ability to show emotions such as grief. Gorillas demonstrate compassion for other primates, even humans. As Dian Fossey said, “Gorillas are almost altruistic in nature. There’s very little if any ‘me-itis’… I feel more comfortable with gorillas than people. I can anticipate what a gorilla’s going to do, and they’re purely motivated. The more you learn about the dignity of the gorilla, the more you want to avoid people”.

Wednesday, February 8, 2017

Of all the inventions known to man, refrigeration is certainly one of the most tasteful. It prevents spoilage and is commonly recognised as an essential part of food safety because it delays food-borne bacterial growth. However, some of what we conveniently pop into the fridge needn’t be there in the first place, and in some cases, may even cause certain food stuffs to perish faster.


Farm fresh carrots age quickly and go limp in the fridge because the green leafy bits draw moisture away from the roots. That said, the versatile carrot can be stored in a refrigerator but only under specific and decidedly pernickety conditions. In fact, they can keep in the refrigeration for up to three months if properly prepped.

Storage tip: To preserve crispy freshness and taste it’s important to minimise moisture loss. Chop off the green tops, tightly seal unwashed carrots in a plastic bag and stash in the coolest part of the fridge. Wash your carrots just before use only.

Olive oil

Olive oil stored in the fridge condenses and becomes stodgy and buttery although it doesn’t go bad. It also turns rancid when exposed to light, oxygen and heat.

Storage tip: Store in a sealed container in a cool, dark place such as a kitchen cabinet or wine cellar away from the oven.


Wrapping your bread in plastic and storing it in the fridge is the worst thing you can do. It will dry out faster and become stale.

Storage tip: If you want your bread to last for longer store it in the freezer.

Tomato sauce (ketchup)

This is one of the big kitchen condiment debates. Traditionally, ketchup should not be stored in the fridge. Nowadays more and more products (including some brands of ketchup) have reduced salt and sugar in them, and salt and sugar are the very ingredients that lengthen a products shelf life.

Storage tip: Check the manufacturer label and store as instructed.


Refrigeration causes basil to wilt and turns basil leaves black.

Storage tip: Basil thrives if you treat it as you would fresh-cut flowers. Trim the stems and place your basil bunch in a glass or jug of water. Loosely cover the basil with a plastic bag and keep it on the kitchen counter. This tip for keeping your basil fresh and perky won’t win any “pretty” awards but it works.

Incorrect food storage can impact flavour and nutritional value, and can become unnecessarily wasteful and expensive. The room temperature rule of thumb doesn’t always work either as room temperature varies depending on where you are in the world. Best to do some research, experiment and find out what works best for you.

You may like:
8 Nifty Food Prep, Cooking and Storage Tips
5 Foods That Should Never Be in Your Fridge

Saturday, December 24, 2016

Christmas Day is the most celebrated holiday in the world. It is a time when friends and family come together. From country to country festivities and non-religious rituals include everything from holly, mistletoe, eggnog, fairy lights, and a jolly fat, bearded man in a red suit to patting people on the back with decorated sticks, rotting decomposed birds wrapped in seal skin, and roller skating to church. Whatever your favourite Christmas ritual one tradition remains the same around the globe – wishing one another a “Merry Christmas”.

Afrikaans (South Africa)

Geseënde Kersfees

Akan (Ghana, Ivory Coast, Benin)


Amharic (Ethiopia)

Melikam Gena

Chewa (Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe)

Moni Wa Chikondwelero Cha Kristmasi

Dagbani (Ghana) Ni ti Burunya


Edo (Nigeria)


Fula/Fulani (Niger, Nigeria, Benin, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan, Togo, Guinea, Sierra Leone)

Jabbama be salla Kirismati

Hausa (Niger, Nigeria, Ghana, Benin, Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Togo)

Barka dà Kirsimati

Ibibio (Nigeria)

Idara ukapade isua

Igbo / Ido (Nigeria, Equatorial Guinea)

E keresimesi Oma

Kinyarwanda (Rwanda, Uganda, Democratic Republic of the Congo)

Noheli nziza

Lingala (Democratic Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic, Angola)

Mbotama Malamu

Luganda (Uganda)

Seku Kulu

Ndebele (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana)

Izilokotho Ezihle Zamaholdeni

Shona (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Botswana)

Muve neKisimusi

Somali (Somalia, Djibouti)

Kirismas Wacan

Sotho (Lesotho, South Africa)

Le be le keresmese e monate

Swahili (Tanzania, Kenya, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda)

Krismasi Njema / Heri ya Krismasi

Tigrinya (Ethiopia and Eritreia)

Ruhus Beal Lidet

Xhosa / isiXhosa (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho)

Krismesi emnandi

Yoruba (Nigeria, Benin)

E ku odun, e ku iye’dun

Zulu (South Africa, Zimbabwe, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Swaziland)

Jabulela Ukhisimusi

While English is an official language in certain African countries, more than 2000 languages are spoken throughout the continent. As a first time visitor to an African country learning a local language isn’t critical. However, making an effort to learn a handful of greetings and phrases – including festive wishes - will almost certainly be rewarded with a warm and appreciative smile.

Thursday, December 22, 2016

A proverb is a popular, repeated, often metaphorical saying that expresses a commonplace and universal truth. Regardless of where the saying originates or the language used, the international currency of proverbs is so far reaching nowadays that it transcends cultural differences, values and belief systems. In fact, proverbs serve to remind us of how fundamentally similar we all really are.

Different words same meaning

Sometimes, two proverbs don’t share the same words but share the same meaning. Take for instance the biblical proverb, “An eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth” and the East African, “A goat’s hide buys a goat’s hide, a gourd a gourd”.

Whether or not these particular sayings share an underlying wisdom is another matter altogether though. As the famous spiritual and political leader, Gandhi is thought to have said, “An eye for an eye makes the whole world blind”.

Ingrained in popular culture

Wherever they originate, proverbs are a significant part of oral tradition passed down from generation to generation in various forms. Throughout the African continent you’ll find a proud history of oral storytelling punctuated regularly with proverbs, some of which have made there way into everyday language in other parts of the world.

It takes a village

For example, the popular saying, “It takes a village to raise a child” has become so ingrained in popular culture around the globe it has practically become a cliché. Some people argue the saying comes from the Bible because it embodies a worldview relating to unity and self-sacrifice found in various passages. However, the saying itself is probably more likely to originate from the Igbo or Yoruba people of Nigeria where, as in many other parts of Africa, raising a child requires the participation of an entire community.

Proverbs in a modern world

Whatever the frame of reference, proverbs have been a source of guidance for African communities in times of uncertainty and remain an inherent part of various societies. According to the Ashanti people of Ghana, “We speak to a wise man in proverbs and not in plain language”. For many people in various African countries, proverbs are wisdom and wisdom is life.

Nowadays, there’s a growing sense in some cultures that proverbs are the fading residue of old traditions and philosophies. However, they are by nature an expression of human observation on everyday occurrences and timeless matters concerning nature, family, birth, life, and death. Increasingly popular sayings of today could well become the cross-cultural universal wisdoms of tomorrow. After all, according to another African proverb, “A wise man who knows proverbs can reconcile all difficulties”.

Wednesday, November 30, 2016

South African Instant Milk Tart Recipe

This traditional light and creamy South African household favourite is made from pastry or biscuit crust with a creamy milk, sugar, egg and flour filling. Said to have arrived with the Dutch Settlers in the 1600s, it makes a regular appearance (almost always in fact) at school fêtes, church bazaars, supermarkets, and foodie blogs. And for good reason! It’s easy to prepare, easy on the palate, and works well as a scrumptious teatime treat or dessert. Even the most jaded non-foodie types will impress friends and family with these easy, no bake, instant recipe.

Recipe by: GOLD Restaurant
Serves: 8
Difficulty: Super easy
30 minutes


T = tablespoon
t = teaspoon


1 packet *tennis biscuits, crushed or blended to fine crumbs
125g butter, melted

 *South African biscuit made with coconut, golden syrup and butter


500 ml (2 cups) full cream milk
1 cinnamon stick
100 ml white (or castor) sugar
2 large eggs
45 ml (3 T) corn flour (for thickening)
45 ml (3 T) cake flour
3 ml (½ t) vanilla essence
30 ml (2 T) butter Cinnamon sugar (for dusting)



Combine the crushed tennis biscuits and melted butter and press the fine biscuit crumble into a pie dish.


In a deep saucepan, add the milk and stick of cinnamon and until it’s almost boiling.
While the pot is heating up, in a separate bowl lightly beat your eggs with the sugar, then add the corn flour and cake flour.
Pour your hot milk and cinnamon liquid into the bowl, and stir quickly and vigorously until smooth.
Transfer the mixture back into the saucepan and cook on a medium heat until the mixture becomes thick.
Take your saucepan off the heat and add the vanilla essence and butter.
Stir well until the butter melts thoroughly into the mixture.
Pour into your crust.
Dust the top lightly with cinnamon sugar.


Tennis biscuits are widely available in supermarkets throughout South Africa.
If trying this recipe in another country, you can substitute short crust biscuits for tennis biscuits.
If well covered, your milk tart will keep in the refrigerator for days.

Wednesday, October 19, 2016

Africa is every kind of special when it comes to wildlife. With more species of mammal than North and South America combined it’s no wonder that travellers trek to the African continent on safari to spot the Big 5 and to see an array of other wildly intriguing mammalian and non-mammalian species.  


Often overlooked but no less intriguing, the strange looking aardvark is found in Sub Saharan Africa. Directly translated from the Afrikaans language, aardvark means “earth pig”. Interestingly, while it shares a medley of features with animals including an elongated pig-like snout, rabbit-like tubular ears, and a cone-shaped tail similar to a kangaroo, it bears no genetic relation to any of them. In fact, there is no animal like it: It is the only animal in its bizarre, one-of-a-kind order.

Homey hideaways

Nocturnal for the most part, aardvarks generally spend their days curled up in cool underground networks. Not adverse to hard labour they dig their burrow homes in soft clay or soil using their powerful machine-speed, spade-like paws. Long thick nails, aid the digging process, so much so that the aardvark can dig feet in seconds. Surprisingly, in spite of being a speedy digger it moves relatively slowly and uses keen hearing and strong sense of smell to guard against predators such as humans, lions, leopards and python snakes.

Termites beware

In addition to being useful for home improvements, the aardvark’s powerful limbs act as nimble cutlery. Leaving their burrows at night to forage for food, the aardvark sways its snout from side to side to pick up termite scent.

Digging through the hard outer shell of a newly discovered termite mound it finds and feasts on its favourite crawly snack within. Using its protractile, sticky ribbon tongue (up to 30 centimetres long) it grabs and gobbles up its dinner. In fact, this earthly hog can consume up to 50 000 termites or ants in one sitting. As far as table manners go (or the lack thereof), an aardvark will sometimes simply press its snout against the opening of a mound and suck up the evening’s meal.


Having an unusually thick skin means that the aardvark never gets bitten. It also has more turbinate bones in its nasal cavity than any other mammal, which allows it to control airflow with military precision. In other words, it can close its nostrils while digging and dining without inhaling dust or suffering invasion from creepy crawlies.

No wonder the aardvark is admired in African folklore for its intrepid search of food and its fearless hunting down of termites and the mighty soldier ant. In fact, not just admired in folklore, the aardvark lends its name to a long-nosed supersonic fighter-bomber known for its nocturnal missions and low-level weapons that can penetrate deep into the ground.

Wednesday, October 12, 2016

Now far away from the place she called home as a child it is with a mix of yearning and sadness that Pamela talks about Kundulu. Just a sprinkling of huts on a rugged natural landscape, from a distance her childhood village in the Eastern Cape midlands could be seen as an idyllic place in which to grow up. Together with her younger brother, sister and four cousins she lived in a small cosy dwelling in the loving care of a wise and attentive grandmother. While not without it’s hardships, Pamela certainly talks about the place with fondness and for good reason.

Born in 1980s apartheid South Africa

During the 1980s many men and women of colour sought jobs in the big cities to support their families. Pamela’s mother, was one of those forced to leave her small children in the care of family. They didn’t see her much, not by choice on either side, but she would regularly send money home to provide for her children. Holiday homecomings were happy family reunions that would always end with her heading off again to find work as a domestic worker.

Rich in other ways

Some necessities that most people take for granted like easy access to water, microwaves and electricity were unfamiliar to Pamela and her family. While she didn’t have fancy clothes or elaborate furniture, there was always fire to warm her, food to eat, plenty of singing, drumming, dancing and traditional Xhosa cultural values. By village standards they might even have been considered ‘well off’.

Accepting responsibility

For Pamela, walking a fair distance to the mountain to collect water, tending the cows and goats (both usually the jobs of a boy), and cooking over an open fire were commonplace. These daily chores were not without the moments of resentment any young girl in her place would experience from time to time. Still, she was the oldest. There was no man of the house, her brother was little more than a toddler, and her grandmother couldn’t do it all on her own.

Each day would begin with waking up early to go to the kraal (animal enclosure) to milk the cow and goats, to make fire for tea and the breakfast maize porridge, and to prepare grandmother’s morning bath. Morning chores completed, Pamela would head off on foot to school.

Learning in the sand

Early school life was rudimentary at best. A typical classroom was a small rondavel (a traditional circular hut-type structure with a conical thatched roof made from locally found materials). There were no books and no pens or pencils with which to write. They would write in the sand on the playground outside, and the teacher would go around and mark their work. They used pebbles for arithmetic.

Ignoring the calling

Her grandmother was a respected member of the community. She’d had the ‘calling’ to be a sangoma (traditional healer) like her mother before her but had rejected this in favour of Western religion. As Pamela was bright and eager to learn, the other children would say her grandmother used magic to make her more clever than the rest of the class.

A question of survival

After school, she would go home for lunch, and set off to fetch water from the mountain. Then she would pound the maize in preparation for the next day’s breakfast porridge, collect the livestock, count them and close them in the kraal for the night. There were times when she would fetch water in the pouring rain or have to chase a cow out from behind a bush on a cold winter’s day. Her bare feet would get so desperately frosty that she would slip them into a fresh pile of warm cow dung. 

Sometimes one of the cows or goats would hoof the milk pail and send the contents flying. Frustrated, she would cry but then her grandmother would come. Together they would finish what needed to be done - it was a question of survival, a way of life. She says, “from my grandmother I learned how to appreciate the old ways, to be independent, to do things for myself, to be patient and accepting. I learned how to be a proud Xhosa woman”.

Old ways new ways

In 1995, Nelson Mandela was South Africa’s first democratically elected president, the Springboks won the Rugby World Cup and ten-year old Pamela, now in grade six finally had a proper school with walls, windows and writing materials. Life was full of responsibilities but she was happy.

Early one morning Pamela found her three-year old twin cousins playfully tugging at gran in an effort to wake her. Intuitively, Pamela ran to the neighbours for help but her grandmother never woke up. She remembers feeling both devastated that her grandmother was gone forever and happy that her mother was coming to fetch them to live with her in the big city of George.

Having bright electrical light at night was odd at first. An easy flick of a switch brightened up an entire room and there was a stove! No collecting of wood to make fire to cook, no pounding of maize, no milking livestock, and no grandmother. Pamela missed her terribly.

Becoming a woman

Adapting to all the changes that come with loss and moving home is tough. Having to deal with the unkindness of other children is worse. Her aunt purchased brand new brown school shoes for her in Cape Town. All the other kids at school had black shoes. On her first day at her new school, waiting outside the staff room, some of the kids laughed at her and called her “no transfer”. In time though she settled in, worked hard at school and made friends.

Pamela’s mother was fair but strict. There was little leisure time. Education was important and Pamela matriculated in 2003. At the time, she thought of becoming a social worker. She’d been through so much herself, had witnessed the desperate circumstances of others, people far worse off than herself and her family, and she wanted to do some good in the world.

Painful decisions

Sadly, this was not to be. Shortly after she matriculated, the following year her mother passed away. Suddenly, Pamela was catapulted into a new set of circumstances. Barely an adult herself, she had to become provider and mother to her brother (fourteen) and sister (seven).

In 2007, she made the painful decision to leave her now seventeen year-old brother and ten-year old sister with her aunt, and moved to Cape Town in search of work. She worked as a security guard. Risky and dangerous, it required long hours and often dealing with unsavoury people. On any given day she would have an altercation with an unruly member of the public and end up riding home on the same public transport as them.

Becoming a mother

While in Cape Town, she met a man and fell pregnant. He responded to the news by saying that he was too young to take on the responsibility of fatherhood and left. Conflicted by what to do about her situation, she drew on her mother’s strength and decided, “If my mother coped, I can too”. So she packed up and headed back to George where she gave birth to twins.

All life is a song

Two years later she was back in Cape Town waitressing at GOLD Restaurant. Everything about the place was an inspiration to her. The people, African cultures coming together, the guests from all over the world, the food, the live entertainment – in particular the singing. From her earliest days in the warmth of her grandmother’s house she loved entertaining people, and singing along with gran to the rhythmic beating of the drum.

One evening, the staff was flitting about checking tables, shining glasses, donning their GOLD issue African-inspired attire in preparation for the night’s dining experience. Then Pamela got wind that one of the singers hadn’t turned up for work so she filled in.

Nowadays she’s a permanent part of the GOLD entertainment repertoire, singing most nights, doing what she loves with people she respects and for people who welcome the music and appreciate her for it. She sings about village life, struggle, war, and cultural pride. She says, “when I sing I feel joy. I feel relief”.

Being part of something special

She stills fills in to lend a hand waitressing when needed. Does she mind? Absolutely not. GOLD’s people are more than a team, they’re family and Pamela has come to value and almost covet her role. She says, “people like coming to GOLD because in one evening, in one space, they find many African cultural experiences and they feel part of something special”. Fortunate to have learned important life lessons from the powerful and brave women in her life, she’s grateful to her mother and grandmother. However, she says the person who inspires her most is Cindy (GOLD Restaurant co-owner). When asked about Cindy she says, “Wow, she’s made me stronger. She’s taught me to be a go-getter, to push harder in life. Yes, she’s the boss but she’s also a mother to me. She cares”.

Back to Kundulu

The last time Pamela was in Kundulu was in 2014. The events leading up to that visit were bitter sweet. Her brother who had left school in grade 11 had been staying in Phillipi township outside Cape Town. They were close growing up but he too had suffered loss and had his own share of disappointments. He wanted to go back to school and she was finally in a position to help him.

One day she got a call from the police to say that there was an incident involving her brother but they didn’t give her any details. She frantically tried calling but couldn’t reach him. Eventually, she discovered that he’d been run over by a car. She says, “He was gone and there were so many things left unsaid. I wished that in our last conversation I had told him that I loved him. I didn’t know how I was going to tell my sister. I had gone back to Kundulu to bury my brother”.

“I never cried”

Looking back she says, “I never cried when he died. I held it in. I wanted to help him in so many ways. I wanted to invest in his future and when the chance came it was too late”. She says, “I wanted to be a good mother to my brother and sister, to close the empty space left first by our grandmother and then our mother. My sister helped me to realise that I could never close that space and so I’m learning to let go and to focus on being a good mother to my own children”.

When she was a small child, her mother carried a dompas or “dumb pass”, which all black people in South Africa were forced to carry when they ventured outside of their designated areas. Pamela grew up petrified of people who had a different colour skin colour to her own. She says, “it wasn’t a good way to grow up. My children won’t have to grow up like that. Their experiences and opportunities will be different. I’ll make sure of it”.

Celebrating the old ways

Brought up with simple, honourable Xhosa values, Pamela’s culture is deeply ingrained in who she is. In fact, she hopes to open her own consulting business one day to preserve her culture and to share it with others. She says, “I want to teach people, I want to remind them of the old ways, why they are still important, and how they can be applied today”.

She wants to show young Xhosa women in particular the significance of Xhosa traditional dress and behaviour (this will become a link to another article on the subject). Everything from behaviour, tone of voice and eye contact to clothing and make up has meaning. Even the way you tie your head-scarf says something about who you are.

Moving on to better things

As for having someone special in her life, she laughs and says, “I have two, my children”. She and her children’s father never reconciled as a couple but he made contact in 2009 and has since made an effort to develop a relationship with his children. He doesn’t do much by way of financial support but she’s happy that her children have a dad. She says, “I know things will be better and one day I will find someone who will love me and my children. I want that for us. For now, I am happy to have work I enjoy, to sing, to be able spend time with my children, to listen to their chatter, and to end each day with something good. Family is everything”.

Edible Gold © 2013 | 5D